• Mission Network News (Thu, 23 May 2024 - 4.5 min)


    Today's Headlines Hezbollah and Israel exchange fire across Lebanon’s borders
    Fire razes a refugee camp; reveals tension between Lebanese and Syrians
    Victims of Kenya floods include unreached people groups
  • Died: Marshall Allen, Christian Muckraker Who Held the Health Care Industry Accountable

    Died: Marshall Allen, Christian Muckraker Who Held the Health Care Industry Accountable
    His reporting was marked by a cheerful determination to uncover truth, which friends and coworkers attributed to his faith.Marshall Allen, an investigative journalist who insisted that uncovering truth was fundamental to Christian faith, died on May 19. The 52-year-old suffered a heart attack a few days earlier, according to his former employer ProPublica, one of the world’s leading investigative journalism organizations.Allen’s unflinching reporting on the US health care industry br
  • Kentucky Clerk Kim Davis Begins March to the Supreme Court

    NEWS PROVIDED BY
    Liberty Counsel
    May 22, 2024 
    ASHLAND, Ky., May 22, 2024 /Christian Newswire/ -- Liberty Counsel filed a notice of appeal with the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals on behalf of former Rowan County Kentucky Clerk Kim Davis. This is the beginning of her journey to take this case to the U.S. Supreme Court, a case which will argue for religious freedom with the goal to overturn the 2015 marriage case known as Obergefell v. Hodges.
    The Ermold v. Davis case, along with a s Sou
  • Anglican Bishop Removed as Clergy Call for Transparency in Investigation

    Anglican Bishop Removed as Clergy Call for Transparency in Investigation
    While the ACNA hasn’t offered public updates on a trial for Stewart Ruch’s abuse response, Todd Atkinson, a bishop appointed to assist him, has been deposed over inappropriate relationships.Nearly three years ago, Bishop Stewart Ruch of the Anglican Church in North America’s Diocese of the Upper Midwest admitted “regrettable errors” in handling sexual abuse allegations against a lay minister, before taking a leave of absence. An acting bishop took over the diocese a
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  • The Flannery O’Connor Novel That Might Have Been

    The Flannery O’Connor Novel That Might Have Been
    Her final work was continually revised but never finished. Can we know what she was aiming to achieve?Flannery O’Connor was an inveterate rewriter, working, reworking, and deleting episodes from her stories and novels. Her archives, collected at Georgia College and State University in Milledgeville, bulge with deleted scenes and alternate versions of characters scarcely recognizable as the people who inhabit the published versions of her stories.O’Connor spent five years crafting Wis
  • Mission Network News (Wed, 22 May 2024 - 4.5 min)


    Today's Headlines ICC’s arrest warrants for Israeli, Hamas leaders draw criticism
    Scripture stories offer hope to women targeted by Iranian government
    “Do Justice, Love Mercy” at Bethlehem Bible College conference
  • DOJ Issues First Indictment in Southern Baptist Investigation

    DOJ Issues First Indictment in Southern Baptist Investigation
    A former official at Southwestern Seminary has been charged with falsifying records in the federal probe into the denomination’s abuse response.
    A former Southern Baptist seminary professor and interim provost has been indicted on a charge of obstructing justice in a sexual misconduct case, the Department of Justice announced Tuesday.Matt Queen, who was previously an administrator and professor at Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, allegedly gave the FBI falsified notes during an o
  • President Biden and the Department of Justice 'Declare War' on the Pro-life Movement and Peaceful Pro-life Activists

    NEWS PROVIDED BYChristian Defense CoalitionMay 21, 2024WASHINGTON, May 21, 2024 /Christian Newswire/ -- The Justice Department filed a federal lawsuit today in the Northern District of Ohio against two organizations and seven individuals for violating the Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances (FACE) Act.Here is a link to the news release from the Department of Justice:Justice Department Sues Two Organizations and Seven Individuals for Physically Obstructing Access to Reproductive Health Services
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  • This is the Definitive Catholic End-of-Life-Decisions Guidebook

    SAN FRANCISCO, May 21, 2024At some point, every Catholic must grapple with end-of-life decisions. No one is exempt, whether they are prepared or not. NOW AND AT THE HOUR OF OUR DEATH: MAKING MORAL DECISIONS AT THE END OF LIFE (Ignatius Press) takes a practical approach to these decisions in its question-and-answer format, making it easy for readers to find what they are looking for quickly and obtain answers to important moral decisions.Written by Nikolas T. Nikas, president and general c Source
  • End the Stalemate: Sean McDowell and Tim Muehlhoff Urge Dialogue Despite Differences

    LA MIRADA, CALIF.With nearly two-thirds of people saying they stay quiet about their beliefs due to the fear of offending others, it's clear a shift needs to occur to end the stalemate in today's argument culture. Biola University professors Dr. Sean McDowell and Dr. Tim Muehlhoff co-wrote a new book on how to do just that. On May 22, the two will host an exclusive eventThe End the Stalemate Challengeand live conversation modeling how to engage in conversation with someone who fundament Source:
  • Moral Failures by Christian Leaders Are a Huge Problem. Can New Standards Help?

    Moral Failures by Christian Leaders Are a Huge Problem. Can New Standards Help?
    ECFA is adding leadership integrity to its accountability criteria.
    The accreditation agency for over 2,700 evangelical nonprofits wants to raise its standards to address “one of the greatest financial risks” posed to churches and ministries today: moral failures by leadership.For decades, the Evangelical Council for Financial Accountability (ECFA) has established guidelines around financial transparency, stewardship, and governance. This year, the organization announced plans to add
  • I’m a Political Prisoner in Congo. My Ministry Is Thriving.

    I’m a Political Prisoner in Congo. My Ministry Is Thriving.
    Even as I long for health and freedom, I see the good that God is doing.The end of April 2024 marked my 10th month in detention at Makala Central Prison in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).Each day passes, leaving the impression that I will be free tomorrow. I know the day I hope for will finally come, because I have put my hope in the Master of times and circumstances. As he says in Matthew 25:31–46, he is also detained with me here. When he is done with detention, he will lea
  • How to Be a Christian Influencer Worthy of the Name

    How to Be a Christian Influencer Worthy of the Name
    We do not deserve to wield influence in the church while being simps and sycophants to the secular world.There’s good reason for the church to be wary of social media influencers—particularly those who speak to spiritual matters. We aren’t wrong to be disconcerted at the idea of Christians being led by online personalities who might be more charismatic than theologically sound or more creative than credible, especially when the influencers are disconnected from church disciples
  • Mission Network News (Tue, 21 May 2024 - 4.5 min)


    Today's Headlines Following President Raisi’s death, what could change for Iranians, Christians?
    Putin pushes for Kharkiv; Keys for Kids helps Ukrainian pastors
    Thousands of Kenyan kids out of school after floods
  • We Are Clueless in Combating Suicide

    We Are Clueless in Combating Suicide
    NEWS PROVIDED BYCatholic League for Religious and Civil Rights May 20, 2024
    NEW YORK, May 20, 2024 /Christian Newswire/ -- Catholic League President Bill Donohue (photo) submits the following and is available for comment: The latest data show that a record number of Americans are committing suicide. Almost 50,000 killed themselves in 2022, up by 2.6 percent from the year before. We have a mental health crisis on our hands, but we are failing to address it properly.A third of studen Source: Catho
  • Forrest Frank Is Making the Internet’s Vibiest Christian Music

    Forrest Frank Is Making the Internet’s Vibiest Christian Music
    His upbeat hits and worship collaborations are capturing younger listeners on social media.
    Some of the most popular music we hear in our Instagram and TikTok feeds comes from Forrest Frank, the independent artist and music producer known for his viral, feel-good songs.His beat-driven pop combines vibey grooves and infectious hooks in hits like “Up!” and “Good Day.”Frank was the top-ranked new artist on last year’s Billboard Christian charts, and his advice for fell
  • New Book Release: 'The Last Great Spiritual Conflict'

    For immediate release: May, 20, 2024Christian historian and Bible expositor, Michael D. Fortner, has released another book filled with surprising insights and revelations; The Last Great Spiritual Conflict: Satan's War Against Pentecostals and Charismatics.Delving deep into the archives of Pentecostal history, the author discovered an ominous vision published in 1916 that predicted two great attacks to come upon modern Pentecostals and Charismatics.
    He argues that the first attack w Source: Lawt
  • The Loosening of American Evangelicalism

    The Loosening of American Evangelicalism
    Long-standing norms against drinking, tattoos, and Catholic-coded church practices have rapidly fallen. What’s going on?Something has happened in the last 25 years in American evangelicalism—what I believe to be a massive generational shift. I’d like to sketch a picture of the change I see and ask if you see it too.First, though, let me set the scene. I have in mind low-church Protestant traditions in the United States: churches centered on the Bible, evangelism, and personal f
  • Mission Network News (Mon, 20 May 2024 - 4.5 min)


    Today's Headlines Lebanon seminary continues classes despite Hezbollah-Israel escalation
    Anti-Syrian attitude rises in Lebanon, ministry meets refugee needs
    Summer camps in Slavic nations reach whole families for Christ
  • Brandon Lake Announces Extension of Explosive 'Tear Off the Roof' Tour

    NEWS PROVIDED BYEPICMay 17, 2024NASHVILLE, May 17, 2024 /Christian Newswire/ -- GRAMMY®-Award Winning singer/songwriter Brandon Lake announces the extension of his wildly successful "Tear Off the Roof" tour with new Fall tour dates added. Featuring many fan favorite songs ("Praise You Anywhere," "Gratitude," "Graves Into Gardens"), unique collaborations, and brand new songs from the record-breaking album, "Coat of Many Colors," thes Source: EPIC
  • Don’t Skip Chronicles in Your Bible Reading Plan

    Don’t Skip Chronicles in Your Bible Reading Plan
    What we can learn from the chronicler’s stories about the kings of Israel.To the dutiful Bible reader, Chronicles might seem a bit baffling. As we read, we might find ourselves wondering, Haven’t I read this before? The short answer is yes and no .
    The books of 1 and 2 Chronicles retell some of the same stories of Israel and Judah that appear in the books of Samuel and Kings. But the chronicler also offers a fresh perspective on those years by incorporating new material and leaving o
  • NFL Sides with Anti-Catholic Bigots

    NEWS PROVIDED BYCatholic League for Religious and Civil RightsMay 9, 2024NEW YORK, May 9, 2024 /Christian Newswire/ -- Bill Donohue wrote the following letter today to NFL Commissioner Roger Goodell regarding the controversy over Harrison Butker. Please contact his communications chief: [email protected] May 17, 2024Mr. Roger Goodell, CommissionerNational Football League345 Park AvenueNY NY 10154Dear Mr. Goodell:NFL senior vice president Jonathan Beane add Source: Catholic League
  • The Church Fathers Belong in Creation Debates. But Handle Them with Care.

    The Church Fathers Belong in Creation Debates. But Handle Them with Care.
    We can humbly seek their wisdom without treating them as mascots for one position or another.On September 11, 2020, I found myself under a large tent, where 51 ministers of the Reformed Presbyterian Church had assembled for a COVID-era presbytery. They gathered to receive charges against me, initiating an ecclesiastical trial. I had published a book that affirmed the possibility of theistic evolution—a view regarded by some as dangerous.Through that process, I became personally (and painfu
  • AI Preachers and Teachers? No Thanks, Say Most Americans.

    AI Preachers and Teachers? No Thanks, Say Most Americans.
    American Bible Society study finds majority don’t trust technology with spiritual matters.Ask ChatGPT how to improve your spiritual life, and the natural-language processing artificial intelligence chatbot has plenty of suggestions.But Americans are skeptical that artificial intelligence, or AI, has much to offer in the way of reliable religious guidance.Sixty-eight percent of people don’t think AI could help them with their spiritual practices or “promote spiritual health,&rdq
  • A New Era of AI Is Here, and the Church Is Not Ready

    A New Era of AI Is Here, and the Church Is Not Ready
    In the uncanny valley of the shadow of data, we should fear no evil—and prepare for a very different future.This piece was adapted from Russell Moore’s newsletter. Subscribe here.In the past several weeks, two events occurred that are going to change our futures. One of them was the launching of OpenAI’s new artificial intelligence program, GPT-4o, just ahead of several competitors who will do the same in a matter of weeks. The other was the defrocking of a robot priest for tea
  • Billy Graham’s US Capitol Statue Unveiled

    Billy Graham’s US Capitol Statue Unveiled
    The late evangelist is one of just four Americans who have received the nation’s three highest congressional honors.
    Salvation in Christ Jesus was offered in National Statuary Hall May 16 at the unveiling of a statue of the iconic late global evangelist Billy Graham, which has John 3:16 and John 14:6 carved in its base.“Friends, God’s grace is undeserved, but through Christ it is freely given. And it is by trusting in God’s sacrifice that we are saved,” US Sen. Ted
  • Mission Network News (Fri, 17 May 2024 - 4.5 min)


    Today's Headlines Tougher Ukraine conscription law takes effect tomorrow; could impact ministry
    TM Lebanon closes school to protect Syrian teachers
    From headhunters to Christ followers: An unreached peoples story
  • Faith in Entertainment Guild Launches with Nashville Gathering

    New Organization for Industry Professionals Building Early MomentumNEWS PROVIDED BYFaith in Entertainment GuildMay 16, 2024NASHVILLE, May 16, 2024 /Christian Newswire/ -- The newly organized Faith in Entertainment Guild gathered for its first formal meeting at Lifeway Films in Brentwood, Tennessee on May 7-8 with more than 100 members in attendance."This is a dream a long time in the making," said Barry Landis, a Guild co-founder. "It was wonderful being with so many peo Source: EPIC
  • Police Officers Are Burning Out. Can Chaplains Help?

    Police Officers Are Burning Out. Can Chaplains Help?
    Spiritual care is essential as stressors among law enforcement rise.Sitting in the front row of a supervisor training in 2016, Stamford Police Sgt. Sean Boeger raised his hand every time the instructor asked who had dealt with a particular experience, including homicides, fatal accidents, and child deaths.During his nearly 30 years as a police officer, 48-year-old Boeger had helped with body recovery efforts at Ground Zero after 9/11. When 20 children were killed by a lone shooter in 2012 at San
  • PJI Urges Texas Supreme Court to Uphold SB 14, Preserving Parental Rights in Medical Care for Minors

    NEWS PROVIDED BYPacific Justice InstituteMay 16, 2024AUSTIN, Texas, May 16, 2024 /Christian Newswire/ -- Pacific Justice Institute (PJI) is weighing in on a Texas case involving a challenge to Texas' Senate Bill 14. This bill prohibits gender-changing procedures for minors. Loe v. State of Texas is now at the Texas Supreme Court, where PJI's Texas attorney, Emily Cook, filed an amicus brief on Friday, April 19.There are two conflicting state responsibilities involved in this bill: pa S
  • The Caregiving Boom Needs Spiritual Support

    The Caregiving Boom Needs Spiritual Support
    By calling or circumstance, millions in the “sandwich generation” feel the weight and cost of tending to aging relatives.
    Shanoah Bruner is among the quarter of American adults who find themselves in the “sandwich generation,” raising children under 18 and supporting aging parents.At her home in the Indianapolis suburbs, the 40-something mom lives with her husband, tween and teen daughters, mother-in-law, and biological father.The caretaking role comes naturally to Brune
  • The Miracle of the Ear

    The Miracle of the Ear
    Speech was not God’s only miracle at Pentecost. The Spirit also gave the gift of understanding, overcoming division and contempt.Tongues of fire, everywhere. In this loud and furious age, a time of protests and counter-protests, words come burning, singeing, scalding, stinging.“Everyone should be quick to listen, slow to speak and slow to become angry,” James wrote, “because human anger does not produce the righteousness that God desires” (1:19–20). But few of
  • The Sustaining Breath of God

    The Sustaining Breath of God
    As a physician, I witness countless first and last breaths. As a Christian, I am constantly reminded of how God breathes life into us through his Spirit.The scalpel sliced through the uterine wall. The amniotic sac ruptured, and fluid flowed across the blue surgical drapery toward me. The obstetrician’s fingers curled around the baby’s head while my gloved hands pressed firmly against the mother’s abdomen. The baby was larger than we had expected. I shifted my full body weight
  • Mission Network News (Thu, 16 May 2024 - 4.5 min)


    Today's Headlines Commercial airline resumes flights to Northern Haiti
    Transform Iran completes Gilaki New Testament, begins work on the Old Testament
    Upcoming video series to reach Buddhists with the hope of Christ
  • Video: Shots Heard During Live Stream News Conference Promoting Two Genders Campaign

    Eugene Delgaudio, president of Public Advocate is flanked by two volunteers dressed in skeleton costumes in front of billboard and with banner that says "Only 2 genders, no bones about it." NEWS PROVIDED BYPublic AdvocateMay 15, 2024WASHINGTON, May 15, 2024 /Christian Newswire/ -- Summary: Shots were fired near Public Advocate's CEO and staff during a live stream video announcement of a billboard campaign opposing transgender surgery on children and promoting the reality of Source: Pub
  • Would Tim Keller Care If We Weren’t Still Talking About Him? Probably Not.

    Would Tim Keller Care If We Weren’t Still Talking About Him? Probably Not.
    For all his greatness, we should most seek to imitate the late pastor’s humility and indifference to fame.In spring of last year, many of us saw a photo of the late Timothy Keller sitting on a park bench. The photo was used on the cover of Collin Hansen’s biography of Keller, and it circulated around the internet in May when he passed away—on social media, blogs, and even Keller’s personal website.What most of us didn’t see, however, was the banana peel lying on the
  • ORU Commencement Video Surpasses 8 Million Instagram Views

    ORU video captures the world's attention, reflecting campus unity through praise and worshipNEWS PROVIDED BYOral Roberts UniversityMay 15, 2024TULSA, Okla., May 15, 2024 /Christian Newswire/ -- In less than a week, over 8 million people have viewed Oral Roberts University's (ORU) Instagram reel showcasing the 2024 Commencement ceremony. The clip highlights ORU's graduating class and their passionate unity, singing "Goodness of God" by CeCe Winans. The viral moment is a contrast Source: Oral
  • Pascal Is More Than His Most Famous Argument

    Pascal Is More Than His Most Famous Argument
    The wager only scratches the surface of his relevance to a post-Christian era.It is a common lament that we live in a post-Christian era. This fact raises challenges to our witness to the world. Most of our audience thinks that, in G. K. Chesterton’s words, Christianity has been tried and found wanting (rather than found wanting and left untried). It is not considered a live option. How do we bear witness well in this cultural context? We might do well to reconsider one of the most enigmat
  • ‘Young Sheldon’ Is Ending. So Is Its Idea of Science Versus Religion.

    ‘Young Sheldon’ Is Ending. So Is Its Idea of Science Versus Religion.
    For seven seasons, the show has offered a clichéd (and nostalgic) vision of how atheists and believers relate to each other.My mom was the one who told me to watch The Big Bang Theory. It was a show about nerds—and I was a nerd. She thought I’d enjoy it. A friend had already mentioned that the main character, Sheldon Cooper, was “exactly like” me. After I watched the show, at Mom’s encouragement, I joked that I had mixed feelings about the comparison.The Big
  • Dr. James Linzey's Prophetic Dream of President Biden

    The White HouseNEWS PROVIDED BY Dr. James F. LinzeyMay 15, 2024WASHINGTON, May 15, 2024 /Christian Newswire/ -- The following is submitted by Dr. James F. Linzey: It was in the middle of the night on May 14, 2024, when I had a dream of Joseph R. Biden, Jr., President of the United States.I was in a room waiting several minutes for him to enter. He finally arrived, wearing a dark blue suit and carrying several documents for me to read. I noticed several people in the background w Source
  • Our Strong Tower - East Coast

    NEWS PROVIDED BY
    Ministry to Muslims
    May 15, 2024KANNAPOLIS, N.C., May 15, 2024 /Christian Newswire/ --The 3rd Annual East Coast Our Strong Tower - A National Apologetics ConferenceFriday, May 31st 2024 6:30pm9pmSaturday, June 1st 2024 9:30am5:30pm (Lunch included)What: Testimonies of Former Muslims, Panel Discussions, Lectures & Workshops
    Topics: Reaching Muslims with the Gospel, Defending Christianity and Challenging IslamSpeakers: Rev. Anthony Rogers, Rev. Samue Source: M2M Network
  • In the Beginning, Did God Make ‘Sky Father’ and ‘Earth Mother’?

    In the Beginning, Did God Make ‘Sky Father’ and ‘Earth Mother’?
    Māori Christians in New Zealand bristle at newly translated portions of the Bible that use the names of local deities.Last year, Bible Society New Zealand (BSNZ) released a 109-page booklet with 10 Bible passages published in a contemporary Māori translation for the first time. The version used the names of atua Māori, or Māori gods and deities, in place of words like heaven, earth, land, and sea. Genesis 1:1, for example, says that in the beginning, God made Rangi-nui (Sky F
  • Mission Network News (Wed, 15 May 2024 - 4.5 min)


    Today's Headlines Houthis team up with Al-Qaeda in Yemen
    Iranian Christians face systematic oppression and persecution
    The needs among us: a question for your local church
  • California Public School Teacher Fired for Her Religious Beliefs Settles with California School District

    NEWS PROVIDED BYAdvocates for Faith & FreedomMay 14, 2024MURRIETA, Calif., May 14, 2024 /Christian Newswire/ -- Last night, the Jurupa Unified School District Board approved a settlement agreement between Jessica Tapia and the Jurupa Unified School District to settle her lawsuit for $360,000. Last year, Advocates for Faith and Freedom filed a lawsuit challenging Jurupa Unified School District in the Central District of California after the wrongful termination of public school teacher J
  • Can You Serve Christ and Confucius?

    Can You Serve Christ and Confucius?
    Asian Christians must navigate ethical dilemmas in everyday life. This recent book can help.There are rules to follow in every culture, particularly in Asia, where many children must bear the responsibility of maintaining harmony within the home and familial structure. To deviate from the norms or traditions of any Asian society requires a bold willingness to try to demonstrate to one’s fellow citizens what is and is not working in their culture. As a Christian living or ministering in an
  • Innovative Broadcasting: Worship Road Radio Launches in Canada

    A disruptive option for Christian radioa digital ad-free communityNEWS PROVIDED BYWorship Road RadioMay 14, 2024VANCOUVER, Canada, May 14, 2024 /Christian Newswire/ -- Today, Worship Road Radio proudly announces its official launch, introducing a transformative digital platform for Christian worship music. Based in Vancouver, Canada Worship Road Radio is the first nationally accessible Christian radio station in Canada and is set to revolutionize the listener experience by offering Source:
  • Christian Billionaire Goes on Trial for Major Wall Street Fraud

    Christian Billionaire Goes on Trial for Major Wall Street Fraud
    Federal prosecutors are trying to prove that Bill Hwang committed massive market manipulation through his investment firm Archegos. His defense says he was trading like anyone else on Wall Street.Bill Hwang brought a book by Dietrich Bonhoeffer to court to read during jury selection.And during opening arguments on Monday, his Christian connections from New York packed out a courtroom to support him.He had given his investment firm a Christian name, held Wall Street Bible readings, and distribute
  • Video: Shots Fired During Live Stream News Conference Promoting 2 Genders Campaign

    Eugene Delgaudio, president of Public Advocate is flanked by two volunteers dressed in skeleton costumes in front of billboard and with banner that says "Only 2 genders, no bones about it." NEWS PROVIDED BYPublic AdvocateMay 14, 2024WASHINGTON, May 14, 2024 /Christian Newswire/ -- Summary: Shots were fired near Public Advocate's CEO and staff during a live stream video announcement of a billbord campaign opposing transgender surgery on children and promoting the reality of j Source: Pu
  • 'Jesus: A Deaf Missions Film' to Make History this Summer

    Groundbreaking Narrative of Jesus Entirely in American Sign Language Hits Select Theaters Nationwide Beginning June 20Tickets On Sale NowNEWS PROVIDED BYEPIC AgencyMay 14, 2024NASHVILLE, May 14, 2024 /Christian Newswire/ -- Deaf Missions and Iconic Events Releasing announces the release of the first-ever ASL adaptation for the silver screen, JESUS: a Deaf Missions film. Experience the story of Jesus and his ministry on Earth presented as a feature film entirely in American Sign Language in selec
  • God Saw that It Was Good: New Book Plumbs the Creation Account in Genesis as an Antidote to Modern Woes

    SAN DIEGO: It seems like vice, confusion, and personal alienation are gripping our world more ferociously with each passing day. A new book from Catholic Answers Press seeks out the causes of our troublesand identifies solutionsat their very root.With In the Beginning: Crucial Lessons for Our World from the First Three Chapters of Genesis, theologian Monica Migliorino Miller (Abandoned) offers more than a popular study of the Bible's opening pages. She draws out of those familiar (and sometime S